As you are aware, the overall goal is rather ambitious and requires tools that we haven't covered in CPTR 142. There are, however, some steps that you can take in the direction of building some of the pieces.
Before trying to build an Android application, think about a web application that can be accessed from a mobile device. To that end, take a look at some Cloud9 tutorials on web applications (like this).
Next, think about the "screen scraping" aspects of trying to get data from an existing web site. Take a look at
libcurland see if you can get a sample application to run.
Note that a primary goal of software design is to specify pieces that can be worked on independently. To that end, you can save some sample HTML to a file and then independently work on parsing the file to extract the meaningful information.